jean claude duvalier
Leaving behind, at least for a while, the much cooler climate to be found in the province of Quebec, Canada, where he now resides, Theodore Achilles' return to Haiti, and its hot sun, almost six years ago was the subject of much speculation.
Once occupying the post of President Jean-Claude Duvalier's Minister of State, Achilles was, like many others when the reign of the Duvalier's ended, forced to leave Haiti and settle elsewhere. It would take twenty years for him to return to his country of birth, a visit he was most keen to denounce as one of a political motive.
An ardent supporter of the Duvalier regime, Haitian Bishop Francois-Wolff Ligonde passed away. According to Radio Kiskeya based on information obtained from Bishop Louis Kebreau, he died following an unspecified illness.
Bishop Francois-Wolff Ligonde was born in the city of Les Cayes, on January 17, 1928. On August 20, 1966, Pope Paul VI nominated him as Archbishop of Port-au-Prince. After more than 40 years in this position, Bishop Francois-Wolff Ligonde retired from his post in 2008.
Bishop Francois-Wolff Ligonde became famous when he presided over the wedding of Jean Claude Duvalier and Michele Bennett, whom he is the uncle. The wedding that many people believe marked the beginning of the end of the regime. There were several issues on the table with this particular wedding: One, Michele Bennett, a mulatto who came opposed to the Noirisme movement that Francois Duvalier has been promoting throughout his government. Two, the wedding itself in 1980 cost over $5 millioms.
This is one for Haiti history book, former Haitian dictator Jean-Claude Duvalier appeared in a Haitian court for the first time Thursday (February 28, 2013) to answer charges of human rights abuses during his brutal lasting over 15 years (1971-1986).
Te courtroom holding that historic event in Port-au-Prince was packed. One could remark the presence of several journalists, activists, supporters of the Duvalier regimes, as well as representatives from several embassies.
This was also the first time the victims were facing Jean Claude Duvalier, the one they directly accused of being the perpetrator of all these crimes. Alix Fils-Aime and Robert Duval, two of the most vocal victims of Duvalier Crimes were present at the court hearing. It was the first time for them to see Jean Claude Duvalier answer direct questions about the widespread abuses associated with his dictatorial government.
Four students were shot to death in the city of Gonaives by soldiers and Tonton macoute of the Duvalier regime in November, 1986. The security forces opened fire on an anti-government demonstration in the northern during several months. The government was desperate and made use of some of the most oppressive measures to stop the popular protest against Jean Claude Duvalier, including press censorship and jailing of opposition political figures.
One of the point that signaled the beginning of an end to the JeanClaude duvalier regime was his Cabinet Reshuffle of 1985. As the pressure was mounting from the population for Jean Claude Duvalier to get out of power, in a surprising 1:00a.m announcement, he announced a major Cabinet Reshuffling. He removed four principal Cabinet ministers following the shooting death of four school children in Haiti. The student were part of the general protest in the country demanding an end to the Duvalier regime.
It was revealed that the two met in High school. However, the romantic relationship between Michele Bennett and Jean Claude Duvalier did not begin until ten years later. the wedding that was considered the biggest event of the time took place on May 27, 1980. The wedding was estimated to cost over US$3 million. The marriage also brought an underlining issue to the surface in the Haitian society. Many saw it as renewed symbol of alliance with the mulatto elite by the Duvalier regime. This was in direct contrast to the policy of Francois Duvalier who in 1957 was fighting against presidential candidate Louis Dejoie, a mulatto land-owner and industrialist from the north of Haiti. Francois Duvalier used used a Noiriste strategy to challenge the mulatto elite and appealed to the Afro-Haitian majority.
Following the wedding and the increased power gained by Michele Bennett as the new First Lady, new friction started to flair-up between her and her mother in law, Simone Duvalier.
The oldest daughter of Francois Duvalier and Simone Ovide Duvalier, also sister of former Haitian Dictator, Jean-Claude Duvalier, Marie-Denise Duvalier has not been a popular figure. She has lived a quiet and very private life with her family.
I was reported that in April 1971, following the deat of her father Francois Duvalier, Marie-Denise Duvalier was one of the candidates who could have been the successor. Jean-Claude Duvalier fought hard not to become president. Instead, he made his preference known at the time that the presidency go to his older sister Marie-Denise Duvalier. This however did not fly well with the committee which his father's Interior Minister, Luckner Cambronne, was heading.
Jean Claude Duvalier was born in the Capital City of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. He spent his academic life at Nouveau College Bird and Saint-Louis de Gonzague. Later, he studied law at the University of Haiti. one of his teacher was Gerard Gourgue.
In April 1971, Jean Claude became presidency of Haiti at the age of 19 upon the death of his father, becoming the world's youngest president.
It has been reported that Jean Claude Duvalier did not have any ambition to follow his father's footstep to become president. All this was an arrangement made made following the death of his father. He preferred at the time that the presidency position goes to go to his older sibling, Marie-Denise Duvalier. One of the most influential persons at the time was the interior Minister of Francois Duvalier, Luckner Cambronne convinced him to take on the role of President for Life
During the Government of Jean-Claude Duvalier, he attempted to balance the power between the existing Armed forces and created as a result created a new military force, the Leopards Corps. The Haitian Armed Forces, also known as Forces Armees d'Haïti, (FAD'H) and the Tontons Macoutes, Volontaires de la Securite Nationale (VSN) were the two main military powers in the country before that. The VSN was an informal force and accused for many cases of abuse. The government of Jean Claude Duvalier was under pressure from the international community to decrease the level of abuse. The creation of the new force, the Leopard Corps, was designated to take care of the problem.
Jean-Claude Duvalier was growing up in an insular and wealthy family culture. When Francois Duvalier died in 1971, Jean-Claude inherited the presidency while still in his teens. At this time he was considered the youngest person on the globe to hold the office.
Jean-Claude Duvalier was not interested in the duties of office, delegating authority in most government matters to his mother, Simone. He made only superficial changes to his father's administration, preferring instead to be a figurehead rather than a hands-on ruler.
Jean-Claude Duvalier engaged in corruption practices, using family riches from a tobacco inheritance to steal revenues from government programs. Other illegal activities used to increase his wealth included selling human remains to medical institutions outside the country and drug trafficking.
The former Haitian dictator Jean-Claude "Baby Doc" Duvalier did not play his cards well with the head of the court of appeals, magistrate Jean Joseph Lebrun. He defied the judge order to appear in court on Thursday to face charges of corruption and human-rights violations during his 15-year rule and did not show up, sending his attorney instead, Reynold Georges. However, the judge who was not happy about that on Thursday summoned Jean-Claude Duvalier to appear in court.
Jean-Claude Duvalier was scheduled to attend a hearing to determine whether he should again face charges for human rights abuses committed during the 15 years of his regime.
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